Saturday, January 13, 2018

The Switch - State of Affairs

Let's kick off the new year with a new blog post!

Since this last year's CCC talk where derrek, naehrwert and plutoo showcased their progress on hacking the Switch, tons of misinformation began floating around about which firmware is necessary for homebrew.
I believe it's now time to put up a nice and comprehensive FAQ on all things Switch hacking related.
So, buckle up, and if you have the questions, here are the answers.


Q: Who the hell are you and why should I take your answers seriously?
A: I've been working on hacking the Switch since day 1. I've found bugs and developed exploits on my own at first and eventually ended up integrating a small loose crew of hackers that share the same interests. While we work together on a certain level, we also work either individually or among other groups (Switchbrew, ReSwitched, etc.).

Q: Were you involved in 34c3?
A: Not directly. Just like many others who were credited during the talk, I've worked with derrek, naehrwert and plutoo on hacking the Switch, but what was presented during the talk is a reflection of these hackers separate work.

Q: I have been told for quite a while that firmware 3.0.0 is where I should be at. They even said so during the talk! What does that mean?
A: Firmware 3.0.0 introduced a specific bug that allowed for userland code execution, but the same bug was patched immediately after on the next firmware update. This created the perfect starting point for publicly disclosing this vulnerability and laying down the foundations of homebrew.
The idea was simple: get as many people as possible on firmware 3.0.0 so everybody can start working on writing homebrew right away. What wasn't particularly clear is that this is ultimately an advice for homebrew developers and not the average end user.

Q: And what about [insert firmware version here]?
A: Here's something that you probably don't know yet: ALL current firmware versions are exploitable up to the point of running your own code.
Yes, you read that right. This includes firmware 1.0.0 all the way up to 4.1.0.

Q: So, can I just update my Switch?
A: Yes and no. This is a question many have been asking and conflicting answers are causing a great deal of confusion among people.
The basic principle is the following: if you have no reason to upgrade from your current firmware version (regardless of what it is), then simply don't upgrade.

However, the real answer is quite more nuanced. Increasing firmware versions obviously include additional patches for a myriad of vulnerabilities, therefore, the lowest firmware version (1.0.0) is the most vulnerable. Obviously, for a number of reasons, not everybody will be able to get their hands on a launch day system, so there's always interest in exploiting new updates.

In an effort to clear the air and promote a less toxic environment, here comes the current state of affairs regarding Switch hacks:
- Firmware 1.0.0:
-> Contains critical system flaws that allow code execution up to the TrustZone level;
-> Most of what was showcased during 34c3 originally targeted this firmware version;
-> Allows for a full blown emuNAND/CFW setup.

- Firmware 2.0.0-2.3.0:
-> Contains system flaws that allow code execution up to the kernel level;
-> Can be exploited to run homebrew using private methods (e.g.: nvhax).

- Firmware 3.0.0:
-> Contains system flaws that allow code execution on the userland level;
-> Can be exploited to run homebrew using private methods (e.g.: nvhax);
-> Can be exploited to run homebrew using public methods (e.g.: rohan).

- Firmware 3.0.1-4.1.0:
-> Contains system flaws that allow code execution on the userland level;
-> Can be exploited to run homebrew using private methods (e.g.: nvhax).

As you can see, the higher the firmware version, the less options you have. However, code execution for homebrew is still assured across all firmware versions.

Q: Wait, did I read that right? Firmware 2.0.0 to 2.3.0 can be exploited up to the kernel?
A: Yes, but no additional information will be disclosed at this point.

Q: What is that nvhax thing?
A: This is currently a private method that I originally discovered and exploited. Joined by SciresM and plutoo, we have successfully used it to exploit pretty much all firmware versions to the point where running homebrew is possible.

Q: Will nvhax be released? When?
A: Yes, but there are no plans to release it any time soon. Having code execution on the latest firmware version available is a privilege that ought to be maintained for as long as possible.
That said, when it stops being useful it will be released as an alternative for people on firmware versions above 3.0.0 to enjoy homebrew.

Q: Ok, so, I'm a developer with a strong passion for homebrew and would love to start right away. What do you suggest?
A: Update your Switch to firmware version 3.0.0, read about rohan and get to work!

Q: Now, I'm just a regular user that loves homebrew, but has no intent or knowledge to develop my own. I also want to play the latest games on my Switch and don't really mind waiting. What do you suggest?
A: Update to the latest firmware version and wait.

Q: What if I'm an avid hacker/developer who wants to explore the system as much as possible?
A: Find a 1.0.0 unit and stay there.

Q: And what if I just want to pirate games?
A: You're barking at the wrong tree.

Hopefully this FAQ will put to rest some of the doubts people have been expressing lately and help them understand the necessary steps to enjoy homebrew on their consoles.
More information will be shared when the time is right, but rest assured we are all working hard on really cool stuff and, hopefully, helping to build a strong homebrew community for the Switch.

Also, stay tuned for a very special blog post in the following days. ;)

As always, have fun!

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